Linda Watson, a history buff from New Orleans, has spent years researching the history and migration of Jacob’s descendants. Her website 12tribehistory.com is brimming with articles and radio archives. You can hear her programs on Hebrew Nation Radio, both live and by podcast. In light of the recent B’ney Yosef Summit and the birth of the nation of Ephraim, it seems appropriate to post Linda’s fascinating findings. As with everything else, do your own research. Books by Steven M. Collins and Yair Davidy are a good place to begin.
Ephraim and Manasseh
Ephraim and Manasseh were the sons of Joseph and Asenath. Joseph married Asenath in Egypt. There is no evidence she was of Egyptian descent; the people who lived in the land of Egypt were of the tribe of Mizraim. Targum Pseudo-Jonathan states that Asenath was the daughter of Dinah, who was raped by Shechem (Gen. 34:1–3). According to legends, we believe she was the daughter of Potiphar. The legend tells she refused to marry Joseph because she was told he was a Canaanite. When she saw him she realized he was not and agreed to the marriage.
In Hebrew, Manasseh means, “to forget all your toil.” Ephraim means “to be fruitful”. Saxon means “dagger or short sword”. Angles means “bull”. We are told “Joseph
is a fruitful bough, a fruitful bough by a spring; his branches run over the
wall. The archers fiercely attacked; they shot at him, and pressed him hard.
Yet his bow remained taut, and his arms were made agile by the hands of the
mighty one of Jacob, by the name of the Shepherd, the Rock of Israel.”
Meaning of the name Angles
In 410 AD the Anglo Saxons pushed into Britain. They were made up of two tribes — the Angles and the Saxons. England (Angle-land) was named after the Angles. Angle is another form for Aegel and aegel was a nickname for Ephraim. Aegel means young bull.
[Jeremiah 31:18] “I HAVE SURELY HEARD EPHRAIM BEMOANING HIMSELF THUS; THOU HAST CHASTISED ME, AND I WAS CHASTISED, AS A BULLOCK [Hebrew: AEGEL] UNACCUSTOMED TO THE YOKE: TURN THOU ME, AND I SHALL BE TURNED; FOR THOU ART THE LORD MY GOD.”
The Land Division
This tribe settled a territory bounded on the north by the territory of Manasseh (west of the River Jordan) and on the south by the territories of Dan and Benjamin (Josh. 16:5-10).
In ancient times, the tribe of Manasseh was itself divided into two half tribes — one located EAST of the Jordan river, in Palestine, and one WEST of the Jordan river, and just NORTH of the Tribe of Ephraim. Interestingly, in modern times this same geographic juxtaposition has been maintained by the descendants of these ancient tribes.
Where did Ephraim and Manasseh Go after Captivity?
They left the land of Israel and went to Scythia. Here is the proof.
God sent Jeremiah to the Northern tribes to give them a warning. Remember the book of Jeremiah was written during the captivity of Judah. The Northern Tribes had already fallen and gone into captivity. At the time of the prophesy, they were in the North meaning they were north of Jerusalem, which would have been Europe. They were actually above the Black Sea.
Jer 3:12 Go and proclaim these words toward the north, and say, Return, thou backsliding Israel, saith the LORD; and I will not cause mine anger to fall upon you: for I am merciful, saith the LORD, and I will not keep anger for ever.
1)Greek Historian Strabo –
“Of the portions thus divided, the first is inhabited in the region toward the north and the ocean by the Scythian nomads and wagon dwellers, and south of these by the Sarmatians.” (Strabo, XI, ii, 1 cited by (E. Raymond Capt, “Missing Links Discovered in Assyrian Tablets”, 1985, Artisan Sales, pg 170)
2)From Steven Collins,
“we saw evidence that Ephraim’s clans formed the backbone of the tribes which united to form the Parthian Empire, while one of the dominant tribes of the Sacae. Scythians was the Massagetae (Manasseh). Even as the term “House of Israel” included the rest of the tribes of Israel who remained associated with Ephraim and Manasseh, the term “Sacae” was also applied to the tribes of Israel which were led by Ephraim and Manasseh (Parthia and Scythia) while in Asia.
When the Scythians and Parthians migrated to Europe, the names “SAChse,” or “Saxons,” (“Saac’s sons“) remained upon them as they settled in the British Isles, but this name also remained on some related tribes who stayed on the mainland (i.e. “Saxony” in Germany and “Alsace” in France).
3) “The Saxons were descended from the ancient Sacae of Asia, and that in process of time they came to be called Saxons.” (Frederick Haberman, “Tracing our Ancestors”, 1930s, pg 130)
4) Pliny – “The name of the Scythians is everywhere changed to that of Germans, and his old designation has not been continued for any except the most outlying sections of this nation who live almost unknown to the rest of mankind (Pliny, IV, xii, cited by E. Raymond Capt, “Missing Links Discovered in Assyrian Tablets”, 1985, Artisan Sales, pg 170)
5) Plutarch – “They were called at first Cimmerians and then, not inappropriately, Cimbri.” (Plutarch, cited by E. Raymond Capt, “Missing Links Discovered in Assyrian Tablets”, 1985, Artisan Sales, pg 141)
They migrated from Scythia to Germany and Scandianavia. In the first century they were known as the Suebi. They actually occupied half of the territory of Germany. Suebi meaning “one’s own” people. Strabo wrote that the Suebi “excel all the others in power and numbers.” He describes Suebic peoples (Greek ethnē) as having come to dominate Germany between the Rhine and Elbe, with the exception of the Rhine valley, on the frontier with the Roman empire, and the “coastal” regions north of the Rhine.
They origined from the islands near Norway and settled in the northern Germany near the Baltic Sea called Schleswig. In the Ohthere of Hålogaland’s account, a Norwegian account, tells of a two-day voyage from the Oslo fjord to Schleswig. In the historian account from Alfred the Great, the Angles came from the Islands near Norway. Alfred states “on these islands dwelt the Engle before they came hither”.[4
History of Bede, after the fall of Rome, the Angles split up and founded the kingdoms of the Nord Angelnen Northumbria, which is eastern England.
“Bede states that the Anglii, before coming to Great Britain, dwelt in a land called Angulus, “which lies between the province of the Jutes and the Saxons, and remains unpopulated to this day.”
Similar evidence is given by the Historia Brittonum. King Alfred the Great and the chronicler Æthelweard identified this place with the district that is now called Angeln, in the province of Schleswig.
“The Angles (common etymology with Anglo, in Anglo-Saxon, and Angleterre—the French name for England) settled in the eastern Anglia counties such as Norfolk and Suffolk. The Saxons settled the rest of England and pushed the original Britons further west in England. By far the heaviest concentration of people who migrated to America from England came from the Anglia counties where the Angles had settled. …Oddly enough the Angles, whose descendants comprise much of America’s Anglo population, gave their name to England which means “Angle-land.” The word Angle is probably derived from the Hebrew word “Eglah” meaning “Heifer of the wild ox or unicorn,” which is one of the animals on the British coat of arms. Instead, England is primarily Saxon and Anglo-Americans are descendants of the Angles” (White, C. M., In Search of…the Origin of Nations: History Research Projects, 2003, p. 394).
Symbols of Joseph
Deuteronomy 33: 17 ” His glory is like the firstling of his BULL, and his horns, are like the horn of a Unicorn with them he shall push the people together unto the ends of the earth: and they are the ten thousands of Ephraim, and they are the thousands of Manasseh.”
Manessah uses the symbol of the Unicorn. According to the MIDRASH” A UNICORN (Raem) was represented on the STANDARD OF MANASSEH son of Joseph, (Yair Davidy, The Tribes, p.220, second edition, Russell-Davis Publishers, Israel, 1999). The Royal Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom, or Great Britain, there is a lion, and a unicorn standing on its hind feet. Today, Manasseh — represented by England (east of the body of water we call the Atlantic Ocean), and Canada (west of that body of water) — still lies NORTH of Ephraim, the United States of America! In ancient times, the tribe of Manasseh was itself divided into two half tribes — one located EAST of the Jordan river, in Palestine, and one WEST of the Jordan river, and just NORTH of the Tribe of Ephraim. Interestingly, in modern times this same geographic position has been maintained by the descendants of these ancient tribes. Today, Manasseh — represented by England (east of the body of water we call the Atlantic Ocean), and Canada (west of that body of water) — still lies NORTH of Ephraim, the United States of America!
Ephraim was a Bull. In Deuteronomy 33:17 a firstborn bull is followed by a wild ox [actually in Hebrew Raem i.e. unicorn]. America uses the symbol of the Bull. Wall Street has a symbol of a large Bull. Many of the coat of Arms for the states has a bull on it.
Ephraim is the 13th tribe
Ephraim was the 13th tribe because he was born after his brother Manessah. He was born last to Joseph in Egypt, after Manasseh, the 12th tribe. The US flag has 13 stripes, the US originally had 13 colonies, in the US seal we find 13 stars above an eagle, also 13 arrows clutched in his left claw, and an olive branch with 13 leaves in its right claw, with a shield of 13 red and white stripes. The number 13 is associated with Ephraim and with America! Ephraims symbols were an Olive Branch, while his second symbol is a Bundle of Arrows. The first will be last and the last will be first!
Ephraim is always associated with the West. Ephraim would pitch his camp in the West with Manasseh and Benjamin. Num 2:18-22.
Num 2:18 On the west side shall be the standard of the camp of Ephraim according to their armies.
When you read Ezekiel chapter one. You notice that the image has four faces — face of a man, face of a lion, face of a Ox and face of a Eagle. These faces represent the four tribes lead by Reuben, Judah, Ephraim and Dan. Reuben’s symbol was a man, Judah’s symbol was a Lion, Ephraim’s symbol was a Ox, and Dan’s symbol was a Eagle. You will also notice that the Ox is on the left side of the camp which is the West.
Eze_1:10 As for the likenessH1823 of their faces,H6440 they fourH702 had the faceH6440 of a man,H120 and the faceH6440 of a lion,H738 onH413 the right side:H3225 and they fourH702 had the faceH6440 of an oxH7794 on the left side;H4480 H8040 they fourH702 also had the faceH6440 of an eagle.H5404
Ephraim was to go to the North which is Europe and the West which is Great Britain and America.
Isa 49:12 Behold, these shall come from far: and, lo, these from the north and from the west; and these from the land of Sinim.
Isa 49:20 The childrenH1121 which thou shalt have, after thou hast lost the other,H7923 shall sayH559 againH5750 in thine ears,H241 The placeH4725 is too straitH6862 for me: give placeH5066 to me that I may dwell.H3427Isa 49:21 Then shalt thou sayH559 in thine heart,H3824 WhoH4310 hath begottenH3205 me(H853) these,H428 seeing IH589 have lost my children,H7909 and am desolate,H1565 a captive,H1540 and removing to and fro?H5493 and whoH4310 hath brought upH1431 these?H428 Behold,H2005 IH589 was leftH7604 alone;H905 these,H428 whereH375 had theyH1992 been?
THEY WILL PUSH WEST
Both Ephraim and Manasseh pushed westward. Manasseh pushed western to Great Britain and Ephraim to America. Notice that Ephraim was to follow the East wind. The East Wind moves West.
Hosea 12:1 prophesies: “Ephraim…followeth after an eastwind…they do make a covenant with the Assyrians.
Through Moses, God prophesied that Joseph would “push the peoples to the end of the earth” (Deuteronomy 33:17). Rallying to the cry of “manifest destiny,” the Americans did what Israelites have been doing for centuries: They moved west. “Go West young man Go West”.
Deu 33:17 His glory is like the firstling of his bullock, and his horns are like the horns of unicorns: with them he shall push the people together to the ends of the earth
America out numbers Britain. American population is 250 Million compared to Britain which is 57 Million. “ and they are the ten thousands of Ephraim, and they are the thousands of Menasseh.” Deut 33:17
America was to be a land of Refuge
Our forefathers understood that America was a land of Refuge for the Christian people. So the eagle on the American Symbol represents the eagle in Rev 12:14. The eagle symbolizes a place of safety from the persecution that was going on in Europe and Britain at that time.
Deu_32:11 As an eagle stirreth up her nest, fluttereth over her young, spreadeth abroad her wings, taketh them, beareth them on her wings:
Purpose of Ephraim
“AND HE SAID, IT IS A LIGHT THING THAT THOU SHOULDEST BE MY
SERVANT TO RAISE UP THE TRIBES OF JACOB, AND TO RESTORE THE PRESERVED OF ISRAEL: I WILL ALSO GIVE THEE FOR A LIGHT TO THE GENTILES, THAT THOU MAYEST BE MY SALVATION UNTO THE END OF THE EARTH.”
The Lost Ten Tribes are linked with the Ends of the earth (Genesis 33:13, Isaiah 41:8,9,13).
The Northern Tribes are lead by Ephraim
Eze 37:16 Moreover, thou son of man, take thee one stick, and write upon it, For Judah, and for the children of Israel his companions: then take another stick, and write upon it, For Joseph, the stick of Ephraim, and for all the house of Israel his companions:
Characteristics of the tribe
It was claimed that Ephraim was to become a people who drank too much WINE (Isa.28:1). Wine is produced in abundance in the US, California, Oregon, etc. The British are not known as wine-bibbers, but their drink of choice is BEER — a completely different beverage. This again points to the US being Ephraim, in the majority.
2) It was claimed that: Ephraim was prophesied to become “joined to idols” (Hos.4:17). Idols abound in modern USA.
3) It was claimed that: Ephraim was to be a “mixed” people. God said “Ephraim has MIXED himself among the peoples; Ephraim is a cake unturned [burnt on one side, white on the other]. Aliens have devoured his strength, but he does not know it” (Hos.7:8-9).
Hos 7:8 Ephraim, he hath mixed himself among the people; Ephraim is a cake not turned.
Hos 7:9 Strangers (Aliens) have devoured his strength, and he knoweth it not: yea, gray hairs are here and there upon him, yet he knoweth not.
They began mixing early in their history in the land of Israel. In Judges 1:29 Ephraim did not drive out the Canaanites who lived in Gezer, so the Canaanites lived in Gezer among them.
3) Their pride continually got them in trouble. They showed their pride, jealously, and self-centeredness when Jephthah chose to fight (and defeat) the Ammonites without the aid of the proud Ephraim warriors. A civil war erupted resulting in 42,000 warriors from Ephraim being killed.
4) He also condemned “Israel”, meaning the Ten Tribes, “because they sold the righteous for silver” (Amos 1; 4-6).
Israel’s punishment was seven years for every year they did not let the land rest. Israel’s punishment was 360 X 7 = 2520 years in fulfillment. If we count 2520 years from 718-721, we come to A.D. 1800-1803. America received the Louisiana Purchase in 1803. Her wealth and blessings took off from that point in history.
Ephraim in Prophecy
Ephraim will destroy Esau. Obadiah says that the House of Joseph shall destroy the House of Esau.
Obadiah 1:18 “AND THE HOUSE OF JACOB SHALL BE A FIRE, AND THE HOUSE OF JOSEPH A FLAME, AND THE HOUSE OF ESAU FOR STUBBLE AND THEY SHALL KINDLE IN THEM, AND DEVOUR THEM; AND THERE SHALL NOT BE ANY REMAINING OF THE HOUSE OF ESAU; FOR THE LORD HATH SPOKEN IT.”
Hosea 12:1 prophesies: “Ephraim…followeth after an eastwind…they do make a covenant with the Assyrians.” A “covenant” is an agreement or alliance. Since Israel and Assyria were never allies in ancient biblical days, this argues for a latter-day fulfillment. Is Ephraim allied to modern Assyria? Yes. Assyria settled in the land of Germany. The British and Americans have made numerous “covenants” with Germany via NATO, the European Union, etc. Hosea 14:3 adds that a time will come when Ephraim will realize it should have relied on God instead of its covenant with Assyria. It prophesies Ephraim will say: “Asshur will not save us,” indicating it learns that security comes from God, not its alliances with other nations such as Assyria.
Isaiah 27:12-13 prophesies that: “in that day…you shall be gathered one by one, O ye children of Israel…the great trumpet shall be blown, and they shall come which were ready to perish in the land of Assyria and the outcasts in the land of Egypt, and shall worship the Lord in the holy mount at Jerusalem.”
Proof Scotland is Judah
It was prophesied that Ephraim and Manasseh would go to war against Judah. This has happened many times. The Milesians who settled Ireland were a tribe of Judah. We know the Irish people moved into the land of Scotland. For further proof see our teaching on the Trojan Kings. Ephraim and Manasseh both lived in the land of Britain and for many centuries went to war with Scotland. Also many of the Scottish Irish people moved to America and settled in the Mountains of Tennessee. The American Civil War was a war between Ephraim in the north and Judah in the South!!
Isa_9:21 Manasseh, Ephraim; and Ephraim, Manasseh: and they together shall be against Judah. For all this his anger is not turned away, but his hand is stretched out still.